Tom Lowell

Tom V Lowell , PhD

Professor

Professor, Glacial and Quaternary Geology

Geology-Physics Building

604

A&S Geology - 0013

Education

Ph.D.: State University of New York at Buffalo 1987 (Geology)

M.S.: University of Maine at Orono 1980 (Geology)

B.S.: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 1976 (Geology)

Research and Practice Interests

My research goal is to understand the pattern of past climate changes and their causes. Of particular interest are the so-called Abrupt Climate Changes that are yet unexplained but indicate that the climate system has very sensitive tipping points. My contribution is to test various hypothesis that attempt to explain these by mapping the spatial and temporal distribution of climate changes recorded in the response of glacial systems.

Toward this end I conduct field work (listed south to north) Cordillera Darwin, Chile; South Patagonia Icefield, and Lake District of Chile; Nevado Sajama, Bolivia; Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru; Ohio; Michigan; Minnesota; South Dakota; North Dakota; Montana; Alberta; Ontario; Quebec; Alaska; and Scoresby Sund Greenland. In all cases we reconstruct the glacial history using various techniques including: geomorphic mapping; stratigraphic analysis, radiocarbon dating, and lake coring.

Positions and Work Experience

1986 -1992 Assistant Professor, Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati,

1992 -2000 Associate Professor, Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati,

2000 -To Present Professor, Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati,

Research Support

2010 -2013 National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Testing Mechanisms for Holocene Climate Change in the Southern Tropical and Mid-Latitude Andes $207,614 Type:Grant

2009 -2012 National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Sensitivity of local ice caps in central East Greenland to Holocene climate change $201,310 Active Type:Grant

2007 National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Glacial Lake Ojibway Chronology to test the 8,200 yr cold-Event Trigger $186,442 Type:Grant

2007 Comer Science And Education Foundation Laurentide Ice Sheet activity during the Mystery Interval $25,000 Type:Grant

2007 Comer Science And Education Foundation Thunder Bay -Timing of the first meltwater drainage eastward into the Lake Superior basin $17,000 Type:Grant

2006 National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Deglaciation Chronology of the Des Moines Lobe – $29,974 Type:Grant

2005 Comer Science And Education Foundation The Role of glacial Lake Agassiz in Abrupt Climate Change $130,000 Type:Grant

2005 Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati Quelccaya Ice Cap: Late Glacial and Holocene Extent and implications for Tropical Climate, Bucher Travel Award $3,000 Type:Grant

2004 Comer Science and Education Foundation Assessing a Possible Cause of Abrupt Climate Change: Timing of Glacial Lake Agassiz Drainage $130,040 Type:Grant

2003 Comer Science and Education Foundation Testing of Abrupt Climate Change with Geological Data $50,000 Type:Grant

2000 United States Geological Survey Surficial mapping of the New Moorfield and South Vienna Quadrangles $9,000 Type:Grant

1992 NSF Enhanced radiocarbon chronology from Ohio: A Northern Hemisphere glacial geologic test of alternate glacial climate hypothesis $149,997 Type:Grant

Grant: #EAR-0544822 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas; Owen, Lewis 08-01-2006 -07-31-2007 National Science Foundation Deglaciation Chronology of the Des Moines Lobe Role:PI $29,974.00 Closed Level:Federal

Grant: #OSP04139 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 01-01-2004 -08-31-2006 Comer Science & Education Foundation Assessing a Possible Change of Abrupt Climate Change: Timing of Glacial Lake Agassiz Drainage Role:PI $130,040.00 Closed Level:Private Non-Profit

Grant: #21(a)(2) Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 01-01-2005 -08-01-2007 Comer Science & Education Foundation The Role of Glacial Lake Agassiz in Abrupt Climate Change Role:PI $130,000.00 Closed Level:Private Non-Profit

Grant: #NCE Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 06-03-2003 -04-01-2005 Comer Science & Education Foundation Testing of Abrupt Climate Change with Geological Data Role:PI $50,000.00 Closed Level:Private Non-Profit

Grant: #00HQAG0040 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 06-01-2000 -05-31-2001 U.S. Geological Survey Surficial Mapping of the Bellefontaine and DeGraff Quadrangels, Ohio Role:PI $3,500.00 Closed Level:Federal

Grant: #NCE Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 06-01-2001 -12-31-2002 U.S. Geological Survey Surfical Mapping of the New Moorefield and South Vienna, Ohio Quadrangles Role:PI $9,000.00 Closed Level:Federal

Grant: #98HQAG2098 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 06-01-1998 -12-31-1999 U.S. Geological Survey Surficial and Subsurface Mapping Shandon and Harrison 7.5o Quadrangles, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio Role:PI $6,500.00 Closed Level:Federal

Grant: #CP28 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 03-14-2007 -03-17-2008 Comer Science & Education Foundation Laurentide Ice Sheet (Western Sector) Activity During the Mystery Interval Role:PI $25,000.00 Closed Level:Private Non-Profit

Grant: #EAR 0643144 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 07-01-2007 -06-30-2011 National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Glacial Lake Ojibway Chronology to Test the 8200 Year Cold-Event Trigger Role:PI $186,442.00 Active Level:Federal

Grant: #SRS 005115-001 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 07-26-2007 -07-25-2008 Comer Science & Education Foundation Timing of the First Meltwater Drainage Eastward into the Lake Superior Basin Role:PI $17,431.00 Closed Level:Private Non-Profit

Grant: #ARC-0909285 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 08-01-2009 -07-31-2012 National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Sensitivity of Local Glaciers in Central East Greenland to Holocene Climate Change Role:PI $201,310.00 Closed Level:Federal

Grant: #EAR-1003072 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 10-01-2010 -09-30-2013 National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Testing Mechanisms for Holocene Climate Change in the Southern Tropical and Mid-Latitude Andes Role:PI $207,614.00 Active Level:Federal

Grant: #CP113 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 02-24-2016 -02-23-2017 Comer Science & Education Foundation Heinrich Stadials and the James Lobe Role:PI $30,000.00 Active Level:Private Non-Profit

Grant: #EAR-1602789 Investigators:Lowell, Thomas 08-01-2016 -07-31-2020 National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Testing Laurentide Ice Sheet Climate Response and Younger Dryas Trigger with Glacial Varves Role:PI $99,330.00 Active Level:Federal

Grant: #EAR-1636740 Investigators:Diefendorf, Aaron; Lowell, Thomas 08-01-2016 -07-31-2018 National Science Foundation Collaborative Research: Identifying basin-specific controls on isotopic and chronological offsets of lake sediment leaf wax hydrogen isotope records Role:Collaborator $124,332.00 Active Level:Federal

Grant: #EAR-2039795 Investigators:Diefendorf, Aaron; Lowell, Thomas 08-01-2021 -07-31-2024 National Science Foundation Collaborative Proposal: Tapping an unused biomarker for insights of past evaporation Role:Collaborator 367265.00 Awarded Level:Federal

Abbreviated Publications

Peer Reviewed Publications

Wiles, G.C., Barclay, D.J., Calking, P.E., and Lowell, T.V., 2008, Century to millennial-scale temperature variations for the last two thousand years indicated from glacial geologic records of Southern Alaska: Global and Planetary Change, no. 60, p. 115-125.

Lepper, K., Fisher, T.G., Hadjas, I., and Lowell, T.V., 2007, Ages for the Big Stone Moraine and the oldest beaches of Glacial Lake Agassiz: Implications for deglacial chronology: Geology, no. 35, p. 667-670.

Derouin, S.A., Lowell, T.V., and Hadjas, I., 2007, Evolution and deglaciation of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan: An examination of chronology and stratigraphy in kettle lake cores: Journal of Great Lakes Research, v. 33, no. 4, p. 875-886.

Lutz, B., Wiles, G.C., Lowell, T.V., and Michaels, J., 2007, The 8200 abrupt climate change in Brown’s Lake, Northeast Ohio: Quaternary Research, v. 67, p. 292-296.

Fisher, T.G., Lowell, T.V., 2006, Questioning the age of the Moorhead Phase in the glacial Lake Agassiz basin: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 21-22, p. 2688-2691.

Schaefer, J., Denton, G.H., Barrell, D., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P.W., Anderson, B.G., Phillips, F., M., and Lowell, T.V., and Schlüchter, C., 2006, Near-Synchronous Interhemispheric termination of the Last Glacial Maximum in Mind-Latitudes, Mid-latitude moraines reveal near-synchronous interhemispheric termination of the Last Glacial Maximum: Science, no. 312, p. 1510-1513.

Lowell, T.V., and Fisher, T.G., 2006, Reply to comment on Testing the Lake Agassiz meltwater trigger for the Younger Dryas, by E. Steig: Eos, v. 87, p. 132.

Fisher, T.G., Lowell, T.V., Loope, H.M., 2006, Comment on “Alternative routing of Lake Agassiz overflow during the Younger Dryas: New dates, paleotopography, and a re-evaluations” by Teller et al. 2005: Quaternary Science Reviews, no. 25, p. 1137-1141.

Lowell, T.V., Fisher, T.G., Comer, G.C., Hajdas, I., Waterson, N., Glover, K., Loope, H.M., Schaefer, J.M., Rinterknecht, V., Broecker, W., Denton, G.H., and Teller, J.T., 2005, Testing the Lake Agassiz meltwater trigger for the Younger Dryas: Eos, v. 86, p. 365-373.

Lowell, TV., Schoenenberger, K., Deddens, J.A., Denton, G.H., Smith, C. Black, J., and Hendy, C.H., 2005, Rhizocarpon calibration curve for the Aoraki/ Mount Cook area of New Zealand: Journal of Quaternary Science, v. 20, p. 313-325.

Vandergoes, M.J., Newnham, R.M., Preusser, F., Hendy, C.H., Lowell, T.V., Fitzsimons, S.J., Hogg, A.G., Kasper, H.U., Schluchter, C., 2005, Regional Insolation forcing of late Quaternary climate change in the Southern Hemisphere: Nature, no. 436, p. 242-245.

Borns, H.W. Jr., Doner, L.A., Dorion, C.C., Jacobson, G.L., Kaplan, M.E., Kreutz, K.J., Lowell, T.V., Thompson, W.B., and Weddle T.K., 2004, The Deglaciation of Maine, in Ehlers J., and Gibbard, P.L., eds, Quaternary Glaciations- Extent and Chronology, Amsterdam, Elsevier: Developments in Quaternary Science, v. 2b, p. 89-109.

Hulbe, C. L., MacAyeal, D. R., Denton, G. H., Kleman, J., Lowell, T. V., 2004, Catastrophic ice shelf breakup as the source of Heinrich event icebergs: Paleoceanography, no. 19, p. PA1004, doi:10.1029/2003PA000890.

In Press

Yu, Shi-Yong, Colman, Steven M, Lowell, Thomas V, Milne, Glenn A, Fisher, Timothy G, Breckenridge, Andy, Boyd, Matthew, & Teller, James T (2010). Freshwater outburst from Lake Superior as a trigger for the cold event 9300 years ago. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5983), 1262-6.

Lowell, Thomas V, & Kelly, Meredith A (2008). Climate. Was the Younger Dryas global?. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5887), 348-9.

Applegate, Patrick J, Lowell, Thomas V, & Alley, Richard B (2008). Comment on "Absence of cooling in New Zealand and the adjacent ocean during the Younger Dryas chronozone." Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5877), 746; author reply 74.

Schaefer, Joerg M, Denton, George H, Barrell, David J A, Ivy-Ochs, Susan, Kubik, Peter W, Andersen, Bjorn G, Phillips, Fred M, Lowell, Thomas V, & Schlüchter, Christian (2006). Near-synchronous interhemispheric termination of the last glacial maximum in mid-latitudes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5779), 1510-3.

Vandergoes, Marcus J, Newnham, Rewi M, Preusser, Frank, Hendy, Chris H, Lowell, Thomas V, Fitzsimons, Sean J, Hogg, Alan G, Kasper, Haino Uwe, & Schlüchter, Christian (2005). Regional insolation forcing of late Quaternary climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Nature, 436(7048), 242-5.

Moreno, P I, Jacobson, G L, Lowell, T V, & Denton, G H (2001). Interhemispheric climate links revealed by late-glacial cooling episode in southern Chile. Nature, 409(6822), 804-8.

Lowell, T V (2000). As climate changes, so do glaciers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(4), 1351-4.

Lowell, T V, Heusser, C J, Andersen, B G, Moreno, P I, Hauser, A, Heusser, L E, Schlüchter, C, Marchant, D R, & Denton, G H (1995). Interhemispheric correlation of late pleistocene glacial events. Science (New York, N.Y.), 269(5230), 1541-9.

Book

Gilman, R., Chapman, C.A., Lowell, T.V., and Borns, H.W., Jr., 1989, The geology of Mount Desert Island: A visitor's guide to the geology of Acadia National Park: Maine Geological Survey, Bulletin 38.

Other Publication

Lowell, T.V., 1996, Open File Map 96-5: Surficial Geology of the Southwest Harbor Quadrangle MaineMaine Geological Survey.

Maynard, J.B., Lowell, T.V., and Nash, D.B., 2004, Geological and geochemical appraisal of the Shaker Creek Aquifer in the vicinity of the Mason OH wellfieldGreater Cincinnati Water Works.

Published Abstract

Kelly, M.A., Lowell, T.V., Schaefer, J.M., Schwartz, R., Migro, P., Denton, G.H., and Alley, R.B., 2006, 10BE Dates Moraines in East Greenland Suggest that the Little Ice Age Mountain Glacier Advance was the Most Extensive Glacial Advance During the Holocene Epoch: GSA, v. 38, no. 7, p. 265.

Milawski, J.E., Densramis, N.C., McFaddin, J., Michaels, J.A., Redder, M., Lowell, T.V., and Huff, W.D., 2006, Sedimentary Processes Associated with Deglaciation Near Sioux Pond Lookout, Northwest Ontario: GSA, v. 38, no. 7, p. 70.

Smith, C.A., Lowell, T.V., 2006, Evidence of Chanes in Glacial Thermal Regime: a Test Case from Nevado Sajama, Bolivia: GSA, v. 38, no. 7, p. 60.

Loope, H.M., Fisher, T.G., Lowell, T.V., and Hajdas. I., 2006, Glaciolacustrine Sedimentation and Chronology of the Western Thunder Bay Lowland, Northwest Ontario: GSA, v. 38, no. 7, p. 73.

Fisher, T.G. and Lowell, T.V., 2006, Revisiting the Age of the Moorhead Phase of Glacial Lake Agassiz: GSA, v. 38, no. 7, p. 72.

Breckenridge, A., Lowell, T.V., Fisher, T.G., 2006, A revised stratigraphy from Fenton Lake, Ontario: evidence for northern drainage of Lake Superior prior to 9, 000 cal BP (8.1 14C ka): 10th International Paleolimnology Symposium, Duluth, MN.

Zavar, E., Wiles, G.C., Taggart, D., Michaels, J.A., and Lowell, T.V., 2006, Alluvial Records of Environmental Change from Mid to Late Holocene, Northeast Ohio: GSA, v. 38, no. 4, p. 65.

Johnson, P.E., Wiles, G.C., Lowell, T.V., Santos, J., Sobral da Cunha, L. J., and Rochette, A., 2006, Reconstructing Little Ice Age Glacial Histories for Cresent and Amherst Glaciers, College Fiord, Southern Alaska: GSA, v. 38, no. 4, p. 25.

Lutz, B.D., Wiles, G., Lowell, T.V., and Michaels, J., 2006, The 8K Event in Northeast Ohio.: GSA, v. 38, no. 4, p. 26.

Stewart, A.K. and Lowell, T.V., 2006, Testing the Effectiveness of Glacier Erosion by Channel Analyses: Northeastern Ohio, USA: GSA, v. 38, no. 4, p. 69.

Derouin, S.A., Lowell, T.V., Hadjas, I., 2006, Bracketing the chronology of ice sheet advance/retreat using radiocarbon analysis of kettle lake cores, Upper Peninsula of Michigan: GSA, v. 38, no. 4, p. 4.

Waterson, N. Lowell, T.V., Fisher, T.G., Hajdas, I., 2006, The minimum problem in dating deglaciation: A strategy from the Fort McMurray area Alberta: GSA, v. 38, no. 4, p. 58.

Lowell, T.V., 2006, Two Glacial Signatures: In or Out: GSA, v. 38, no. 4, p. 57.

Fisher, T.G., Lowell, T.V., 2006, When was the Moorhead low-water phase of glacial Lake Agassiz?: GSA, v. 38, no. 4, p. 57.

Loope, H.M., Fisher, T.G., Lowell. T.V. Hajdas, I., 2006, Glaciological and chronological constraints of Laurentide ice sheet occupation of the superior basin during the Younger Dryas: GSA, v. 38, no. 4, p. 57.

Lowell, T.V., Fisher, T.G., Hajdas, I., 2005, Revised Deglacial Chronology of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and Implications for Catastrophic Meltwater Discharge as Triggers for Abrupt Climate Change: Annual Meeting of American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA.

Fisher, T.G., Lowell, T.V., 2005, Testing the Agassiz meltwater trigger for the Younger Dryas cold period: Gary Comer Abrupt Climate Change Roundtable Conference, IBM Palisades, NY.

Waterson, N.J., Lowell, T.V., Fisher, T.G., Loope, H., Hadjas, I., 2005, The deglaciation chronology of the Fort McMurray area, Alberta: implications for meltwater drainage: GSA, v. 37, no. 7, p. 542.

Pritchard, K.L. and Lowell, T.V., 2005, Relationships And Patterns Of Channel Formation During Deglaciation Of The Miami Lobe, Near Piqua, Ohio: GSA, v. 37, no. 5, p. 8.

Goetz, S., J, T., Ham, N., Kinnicutt, P., Kincaire, K., Lowell, T, V., and Derouin, S., 2005, Late-Glacial And Post-Glacial Landscape Evolution Of Beaver Island, Michigan: GSA, v. 37, no. 5, p. 82.

Fisher, T.G., Lowell, T.V., Glover, K., and Hajdas, I., 2005, A Later Deglacation Of Northwestern Ontario: Implications For Eastern Lake Agassiz Drainage: GSA, v. 37, no. 5, p. 21.

Fisher, T.G., Lowell, T.V., Loope, H.M., Henry, T., 2005, Deglaciation in northwestern Ontario: implications for the beginning of the Moorhead Phase of glacial Lake Agassiz: GSA, v. 37, no. 7, p. 542.

Kelly, M.A., Hall, B.L., Lowell, T.V., Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., and Broecker, W.S., 2005, A Chronology of Mountain Glaciation and Associated Paleotemperature Records from the Scoresby Sund Region, East Greenland: GSA, v. 37, no. 7, p. 40.

Lowell, T.V., Fisher, T.G., 2005, What if we had looked from space first? Using SRTM DEM data to generate alternative hypothesis for deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: Canadian Quaternary Association Biennial Meeting, Winnipeg, Manitoba, p. A52.

Fisher, T.G., Lowell, T.V., Glover, K. and Hajdas I., 2005, A new deglacial chronology for the area west of Thunder Bay, Ontario, and its implications for a Moorhead phase eastern outlet of glacial Lake Agassiz: Canadian Quaternary Association Biennial Meeting, Winnipeg, Manitoba, p. A27.

Waterson, N.J., Lowell, T.V., Fisher, T.G., Glover, K., Hajdas, I., ETH, Z., 2005, The Deglaciation And Holocene Development Of The Fort Mcmurray Area, Alberta: GSA, v. 37, no. 5, p. 9.

Derouin, S.A., and Lowell, T.V., 2005, Chronology Of Glacial Retreat In The Upper Peninsula Of Michigan From Kettle Lake Cores: GSA, v. 37, no. 5, p. 63.

Michaels, J.A., Zavar, E.M., Trenton, A.M., Wiles, G.C, and Lowell, T.V., 2004, Post Glacial Environmental History From Lakes, Bogs And Alluvial Fans, Northeast Ohio: GSA, v. 36, no. 5, p. 70.

Licht, K.J., Sembach, J., Jordan, B., and Lowell, T.V., 2005, Preliminary Analysis Of Paleoenvironmental Records From Two Ne Indiana Wetlands Since The Lgm: GSA, v. 36, no. 5, p. 531.

Glover, K.C., Lowell, T.V., Pair, D., and Wiles, G., 2005, Deglaciation And Post-Glacial Climate Change In A Regional Network Of Sites, Ohio And Eastern Indiana: GSA, v. 36, no. 5, p. 249.

Fisher, T.G., Lowell, T.V., Glover, K.C., and Hajdas, I., 2005, Deglaciation West Of Thunder Bay, Ontario: A Conundrum For Eastern Lake Agassiz Drainage: GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 1, p. 5.

Rinterknecht, V.R., Schaefer, J.M., Lowell, T.V., Denton, G.H., Teller, J.T., Broecker, W.S., Fisher, T.G., and Kubik, P.W., 2004, Cosmogenic Dating Evidence for the Routing of Lake Agassiz Overflow During the Younger Dryas: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Lowell, T.V., Fisher, T.G., Waterson, N.J., and Glover, K. C., 2004, Deglaciation Of The Fort Mcmurray, Alberta, Area: Is It Later Than We Think?: GSA, v. 36, no. 5, p. 498.

Hamilton, R., Goetz, S.L., Hamm, N.R., and Lowell, T.V., 2004, Channel Development of Superglacial Streams in Clean Ice: Implications for Understanding Bedrock-Channel Formation: GSA, v. 36, no. 3, p. 10.

Davis, T., Denner, J., Goetz, S.L., Hamm, N.R., and Lowell, T.V., 2004, Sediment Storage in an Ice-Marginal Lake, Matanuska Glacier, Alaska: GSA, v. 36, no. 3, p. 11.

Lowell, T.V., 2003, Response of New Zealand glaciers to the climate events of the Little Ice Age: A Templet for Older Climate Changes?: GSA, v. 35, no. 6, p. 480.

Stewart, A.K. and Lowell, T.V., 2003, Asymmetries in the Miami-Scioto interlobate area, West-Central, Ohio, United States: GSA, v. 35, no. 6, p. 425.

Beckwith-Laube, M., Kennedy, M., Wiles, G., Calking, P., and Lowell, T.V., 2003, Late Holocene Glacial Stratigraphy of Columbia Bay Alaska: Extending the Record: GSA, v. 35, no. 6, p. 424.

McArthur, K., Leondard, E.M., Fricke, H., and Lowell, T.V., 2003, Glacial-Interglacial Environmental Change as Inferred from Organic Content and Carbon Isotope Analysis of Peat, Brewster Bog, Ohio: GSA, v. 35, no. 6, p. 210.

Glover, K., Lowell, T.V., Pair, D., and Wiles, G.C., 2003, Last Termination: A Network of Paleocbasins Dating to C. 16, 000 14C yr: XVI INQUA congress, p. 165.

Szabo, J.P. Lowell, T.V., Pair, D., and Wiles, G.C., 2003, Studies on the Stratigraphy of Glacial Deposits and rates of retreat of Wisconsinan ice: XVI INQUA Congress, p. 73.

Glover, K.C., and Lowell, T.V., 2003, Paleoclimate Reconstruction of the Last Termination from a Bog Sequence, Champaign Co., Ohio: Third International Limnogeology Congress Abstract Volume, p. 105.

Glover, K.C., and Lowell, T.V., 2003, Paleoclimate Reconstruction of the Late Termination, Campaign Co. Ohio: GSA, v. 34, p. 504.

Lowell, T.V., Pair, D., and Wiles, G.C., 2003, Preliminary Radiocarbon retreat chronology of the Erie Lobe: It might mean this: North-Central Section, GSA, Kansas City, Missouri.